Sunday, January 4, 2009

Xp Auto Install


Hello everybody
May be this might be useful. I install 98 with backup/restore utility.

My way of auto installation of XP.
Then on second partition or the same partition XP without pagefile.sys.

Then i get a dual boot. So after booting into XP, Install all ur fav progies
n games. Test each of them, to make sure they work... etc etc... all
ur drivers also. Tweak ur xp.

make sure u unhide all files relates to win xp dir and progra files.

Then boot into 98 > goto backup utility of 98.

Select the folders used by XP, eg
my documents and settings
winxp (or windows- what ever name u gave to windows dir)
check all files in the root
program files folder
and like this all folders and files used by xp.

then start the backup process.

make sure u have ~ > 3gb of free space on the disk / partition
u r planning to save the image file.

Then when ur XP crashes or U crash it ... lol
then just boot into 98, goto restore option,
and click ok. Over write old files or new ones as u like.

It takes ~20min to install



Windows Xp including

Office Xp
Interdev
.net framework
winzip
winrar
tweaks
easy cleaner
adobe
gif animator
acdess 6
service pack1 , and now service pack 2b
lan settings
mcafee antivirus
zone alarm
cute ftp3 pro
Easy CD-DA Extractor 7
Eraser
Ahead
Links Organizer
Bulk Rename Utility
BitStrike Software
Mozilla Firefox
Microsoft Visual Studio
Opera
Onlinetimer
Nokia
Ulead Systems
UltraISO
Virtual CD v4
SlimBrowser
Yahoo!
Msn
Webroot
Spamihilator
inetpub


U can exclude any folder, u think is not needed at that time for reinstallation.

The whole task id completed in 20 minutes ... in the mean while
I make a nice cup of tea for myself and wait for XP to start

PS: dont forget to include boot.ini file.

Hope it will help.

Monday, December 1, 2008

The difference between DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD+RW and DVD-RW

The difference between DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD+RW and DVD-RW explained

There's DVD+R, DVD+RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, and even DVD-ROM! So what's the difference between all of these different names, aren't all DVDs the same? Well, it's not quite that simple.

Let's first start with the most obvious difference: some have R and some have RW. The "R" stands for readable, while the "W" stands for writeable.

The main difference between DVD-R and DVD-RW, or DVD+R and DVD+RW is that the R disc formats can only be written to once, and then it is only readable and can’t be erased for the rest of its digital life. While RW discs are can be written to and erased many times, they are both readable and writeable.

"R" discs are perfect if they are only needed to be written to once, such as giving some files to a friend or transferring them between PCs. "RW" discs have their strength in the ability to be used many times over, which is great for routine system backups, etc. And naturally, the RW discs are slightly more expensive than the R discs, but you'll have to decide if the trade offs are worth the money.

Now, onto the difference between DVD-R and DVD+R. As I just described above, DVD-R & DVD-RW are sister discs, the difference being one is writeable once, while the other is writeable multiple times. The same thing is true for DVD+R & DVD+RW. So the question is, what's the difference between the plus and minus?

In order to explain this we must take a trip back in time. When DVDs were first being developed, there was no industry standard. Multiple companies were competing to develop what they hoped would be the dominant form of the future.

The DVD-R DVD+R difference can easily be summarized by the following:

* The DVD-R/RW standard was developed by Pioneer, and is used primarily by Apple and Pioneer. These "minus" discs can only be written to in one layer on the discs surface. In addition, this format is supported by the DVD forum, but is in no way an industry standard. DVD-R/RW discs are cheaper than the "plus" format.
* The DVD+R/RW format is supported by Philips, Dell, Sony, HP, and Mcft. These discs can be written to in multiple layers, giving them slightly better and more disc storage than the "minus" format. Because of this additional capacity, they are slightly more expensive than "minus" discs.

A couple final things to clear up is the difference between DVD-ROM and DVD+RW, or the other DVD formats I mentioned above. The DVD-ROM drive can only read DVDs, while the other DVD drives can read and write data to DVDs.

And naturally the DVD+RW CD+RW difference can be explained by the "DVD" or "CD" prefix. DVDs, on average, can store up to 4.7 GB of data, while a CD can only store about 700 MB of data, or about 15% of a DVD's capacity. While CDs are slightly cheaper, in my opinion, the benefits of DVDs are much greater.

So now that you've learned about the difference between DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, and even DVD-ROM, which one is right for you? The easiest way to determine which is more beneficial is to watch the industry trends. A few years ago all pre-built computers were shipping with DVD-ROM drives. Today, most PCs have a burnable DVD drive.

I feel that the benefits of having a burnable DVD drive far outweigh any additional costs. They store much more data, and they are ideal for storing your home movies to watch on your DVD player.

My advice is to look at DVD burners that support all of the major formats I've mentioned above, DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-RW, and DVD+RW. While a DVD drive that supports all of these formats may be slightly more expensive, it will allow you to use any type of DVD disc to burn to, and you'll be protected from any industry shifts to one format or the other.

Viewing Leftover Driver Entries.

Windows keeps a Device Manager entry for every piece of
hardware that's ever been recognized by the system, regardless
of whether it is currently present in the machine or was even
set up correctly in the first place. The "View Hidden Devices"
option in Device Manager won't show you these "residual"
drivers. You can force it to show you everything by going to
My Computer Properties, the Advanced tab, Environment
Variables, and adding a new system variable with the name
"DEVMGR_SHOW_NONPRESENT_DEVICES" and a value of 1. Now opening
Device Manager and choosing "Show Hidden Devices" really will
show you everything. Standard practice at the factory is to
use a single image and just move it from model to model,
letting it plug and play all the new hardware along the way.
This leaves you with an impressive list of hardware still in
the Device Manager, but no longer in the system. You also see
this to a lesser degree when you restore a system from an
image you created for backup purposes. These "residual"
drivers can sometimes cause all kinds of weirdness and are
best removed by right-clicking on their entry in the Device
Manager and choosing "uninstall".

This works on Windows 2000/XP (and I assume Server 2003,
though I haven't tried it). Anyone running a factory loaded
Compaq or Dell will be amazed at the amount of junk left over
from this process.


Thanks, Jon. Indeed, Windows has a thing about hanging on to ghost
entries in Device Manager and also in the Registry. (This is one of the
reasons why Registries inflate so much over time.) A little judicious
ghostbusting lets your PC run cleaner and leaner!

Wednesday, November 26, 2008

Virtual Memory Information

Tutorial Objective

This tutorial talks about anything about the virtual memory and how much virtual memory you need for your system.


Tutorial Introduction & Background

Today application is getting bigger and bigger. Therefore, it requires a bigger system memory in order for the system to hold the application data, instruction, and thread and to load it. The system needs to copy the application data from the HDD into the system memory in order for it to process and execute the data. Once the memory gets filled up with data, the system will stop loading the program. In this case, users need to add more memory onto their system to support that intense application. However, adding more system memory costs the money and the normal user only needs to run the the intense application that requires the memory only for one or two days. Therefore, virtual memory is introduced to solve that type of problem.


Terminology & Explanation

There are two types of memory, which are as follows:

* System Memory is a memory that is used to store the application data and instruction in order for the system to process and execute that application data and instruction. When you install the memory sticks to increase the system RAM, you are adding more system memory. System Memory can be known as either the physical memory or the main memory.

* Virtual Memory is a memory that uses a portion of HDD space as the memory to store the application data and instruction that the system deemed it doesn't need to process for now. Virtual Memory can be known as the logical memory, and it controls by the Operating System, which is Microsoft Windows. Adding the Virtual Memory can be done in system configuration.


Tutorial Information & Facts or Implementation

Virtual Memory is a HDD space that uses some portion of it as the memory. It is used to store application data and instruction that is currently not needed to be process by the system.

During the program loading process, the system will copy the application data and its instruction from the HDD into the main memory (system memory). Therefore the system can use its resources such as CPU to process and execute it. Once the system memory gets filled up, the system will start moving some of the data and instruction that don't need to process anymore into the Virtual Memory until those data and instruction need to process again. So the system can call the next application data and instruction and copy it into the main memory in order for the system to process the rest and load the program. When the data and instruction that is in the Virtual Memory needs to process again, the system will first check the main memory for its space. If there is space, it will simply swap those into the main memory. If there are not any space left for the main memory, the system will first check the main memory and move any data and instructions that doesn't need to be process into the Virtual Memory. And then swap the data and instruction that need to be process by the system from the Virtual Memory into the main memory.

Having too low of Virtual Memory size or large Virtual Memory size (meaning the size that is above double of the system memory) is not a good idea. If you set the Virtual Memory too low, then the OS will keep issuing an error message that states either Not enough memory or Virtual too low. This is because some portion of the system memory are used to store the OS Kernel, and it requires to be remain in the main memory all the time. Therefore the system needs to have a space to store the not currently needed process data and instruction when the main memory get filled up. If you set the Virtual Memory size too large to support the intensive application, it is also not a good idea. Because it will create the performance lagging, and even it will take the HDD free space. The system needs to transfer the application data and instruction back and forth between the Virtual Memory and the System Memory. Therefore, that is not a good idea. The ideal size for the Virtual Memory is the default size of Virtual Memory, and it should not be exceed the value of the triple size of system memory.

To determine how much virtual memory you need, since the user's system contains the different amount of RAM, it is based on the system. By default, the OS will set the appropriate size for Virtual Memory. The default and appropriate size of Virtual Memory is:

CODE
* 1.5 =
.

For example, if your system contains 256 MB of RAM, you should set 384 MB for Virtual Memory.

CODE
256 MB of RAM (Main Memory) * 1.5 = 384 MB for Virtual Memory


If you would like to determine how much the Virtual Memory is for your system and/or would like to configure and add more virtual memory, follow the procedure that is shown below. The following procedure is based on windows XP Professional.

1-1) Go to right-click My Computer and choose Properties

1-2) In the System Properties dialog box, go to Advanced tab

1-3) Click Settings button that is from the Performance frame

1-4) Once the Performance Options shows up on the screen, go to Advanced tab

1-5) Under the Advanced tab, click the Change button from the Virtual Memory frame to access to the Virtual Memory setting

Then the Virtual Memory dialog box appears on the screen. In there, you are able to check how much the Virtual Memory you set. If you would like to modify the size of Virtual Memory, follow the procedure that is shown below.

2-1) In there, select the drive letter that is used to install the Operating System

2-2) Choose the option that says, "Custom Size:"

Once you choose that option, the setting for Initial Size and Maximum Size become available for you to set. Initial Size (MB) means the actual size of Virtual Memory, and Maximum Size (MB) means the maximum size of Virtual Memory that is allowed to use.

Let's say if your system contains 512 MB of RAM, then the ideal setting for the Virtual Memory is as follows:

CODE

Initial Size (MB): 768
Maximum Size (MB): 1500


Once you are happy with that Virtual Memory size, click the Set button from Paging file size for selected drive to apply the setting for the Virtual Memory size. Then click the OK button to apply the setting.

That's where you can manage and configure for the size of Virtual Memory.


Additional Information

* To maintain the good overall system performance, you should be using the default size of actual size for Virtual Memory and the triple the value of the size of the main memory for the maximum size of Virtual Memory. If you find that main memory plus virtual memory is not big enough to load the intensive application, then you will need to add more main memory onto your system.


Search Keyword

virtual memory

Friday, September 12, 2008

User's guide to avoiding virus infections

User's guide to avoiding virus infections
Keeping an eye out for viruses


Computer viruses are everywhere! This guide will show you how to stay alert and how to avoid getting infections on your computer. Having an updated virus scanner is only a small part of this, there are many ways that you can prevent having viruses other than a virus scanner, as it will not always save you.


Types of viruses
There are many type of viruses. Typical viruses are simply programs or scripts that will do various damage to your computer, such as corrupting files, copying itself into files, slowly deleting all your hard drive etc. This depends on the virus. Most viruses also mail themselves to other people in the address book. This way they spread really fast and appear at others' inboxes as too many people still fall for these. Most viruses will try to convince you to open the attachment, but I have never got one that tricked me. In fact, I found myself emailing people just to make sure they really did send me something. It does not hurt to be safe.


Worms
Worms are different type of viruses, but the same idea, but they are usually designed to copy themselves a lot over a network and usually try to eat up as much bandwidth as possible by sending commands to servers to try to get in. The code red worm is a good example of this. This worm breaks in a security hole in Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Server) in which is a badly coded http server that, despite the security risks, a lot of people use it. When the worm successfully gets in, it will try to go into other servers from there. When IceTeks was run on a dedicated server at my house, there was about 10 or so attempts per day, but because we ran Apache, the attempts did not do anything but waste bandwidth and not much as I had it fixed a special way. Some worms such as the SQL slammer will simply send themselves over and over so many times that they will clog up networks, and sometimes all of the internet. Worms usually affect servers more than home users, but again, this depends on what worm it is. It is suspected that most worms are efforts from the RIAA to try to stop piracy, so they try to clog up networks that could contain files. Unfortunately, the RIAA have the authority to do these damages and even if caught, nothing can be done.


Trojans
Trojans are another type of virus. They are simply like a server in which enables hackers to get into and control the computer. A trojan such as Subseven can enable a hacker to do various things such as control the mouse, eject the cd-rom drive, delete/download/upload files and much more.


MBR virues
Boot sector viruses are another type, they are similar to file viruses, but instead they go in the boot sector and can cause serious damage when the computer is booted, some can easily format your drive simply by booting your computer. These are hard to remove.


Most viruses have various characteristics. For example, a worm can also be a trojan and also infect the boot sector. It all depends on how the virus is written and what it is designed to do. That's why there are not really strong structured categories, as they can easily mix one in the other.


Know the potentially dangerous files
Like any other files, viruses must be opened in order to do something. Most viruses come through e-mail as an attachment. Some will make it look like it's someone you know, and it will try to convince you to open an attachment. Never open attachments at any cost! Some viruses will infect files in programs, so opening a program will actually open the virus, maybe the same one, or another part of it.


All files have what is called an extension; This is the 3 last letters after the last period. For example, setup.exe has a file extension of .exe.


Extensions to watch out for are .exe .com .bat .scr .pif .vbs and others, but these are the most seen. .exe .com .bat .pif and .scr are valid extensions for executables. A virus writer will simply rename it to one of these and it will work the same way. .pif is a shortcut to an ms-dos program and will have the ms dos icon, but will still execute whatever code is in it, so an .exe can be renamed to .pif and be run the same way. .bat is a batch file, which can contain instructions to do various file activities, but again, a .exe can be renamed to .bat and it will execute it! .vbs is a visual basic script. For some reason, Microsoft provides this scripting language along with the scripting host to make it more convenient to design and write viruses quickly and easily, I've never seen another use for this scripting language other than for writing viruses. There are programs that are written with that language, but it is compiled into an exe. Exe is the usual extension for programs, you would not have a software CD install a bunch of vbs files all over!


Bottom line is, if you don't know what a file is just don't open it. Some viruses will sometimes be named a way as to mask the real file extension to make it look like a harmless file such as a image file. This is easily noticed, but can still be missed. Simply don't open unexpected files.


If you get something that appears like something legit, just ask the person it came from if they sent it. Most viruses use a friend's address to make it look like it comes from them. The virus does this by using the person's address when sending itself to the address book contacts.


Downloads
Email is not the only way to get viruses; P2P (file sharing programs such as kazaa, winmx, direct connect etc) is also another way to get viruses.


When downloading programs, the main thing to watch out for is the file size. If you are downloading a program that you expect to be rather large such as a game, don't grab a file that is 10KB, since it's most likely a virus. However, I've been caught with a virus even with large files, so file size is not the only thing to watch, as an exe is still valid even if junk is added at the end, so a 64KB virus will still function even if it is turned into 650MB.


Icons are something to look for too, fortunately, virus writers don't take time to put icons. If your download should be a setup file, you should see the icon of a setup file. If it's just the blank icon that typical plain or corrupted exes have, don't open it.


Another thing to do, which should be obvious, is to scan the file for viruses using updated virus definitions. But don't rely on only your virus scanner, as they are not perfect, and if the virus has not been reported to them yet, they won't know to create a definition for it!


Changing settings to stay safe
If you do open a virus, you want to avoid it going to all your friends. The simplest thing to do is to NOT use the windows address book. It is easy for viruses to get through and Microsoft is not doing anything about it. Just don't use it. Put them in spreadsheet or even better write them down somewhere. Don't use the address book.


Another "feature" to avoid is the auto preview. Some viruses can attempt to open themselves just by opening the email. There are security holes in Microsoft mail programs that allow this. In Microsoft Outlook, click on the view menu and remove auto preview. You need to do this for every folder, but the inbox is most important. In Outlook Express, click on the view menu and go to layout. In the dialog box, you will see a check box for show preview pane. Uncheck it and click ok.


Another thing you should change, especially if you download a lot, is the option that allows you to view the file extension. In Win98, go in any folder, click on view then folder options and choose the view tab and where it says hide file extension for known types, uncheck it. In win2k, it is the same process, but instead, go in the control panel and open the folder options icon.


Avoiding server worms
Some viruses, mostly worms, can exploit through servers and affect other servers from servers that have been infected. A good example is the SQL slammer. This was a worm that affected SQL servers run by Microsoft IIS and Microsoft SQL Server. Once the worm gets in, that particular server starts trying to find more exploitable driving internet connections to a halt in the process. Servers running Apache were unaffected by that, except for the many hits to try to get in. IceTeks received about 100 hits per day when it was run on a dedicated home server. Most hits came from major ISPs and other big websites that had no clue they were still affected.


The simple solution to avoid these types of viruses is to NOT use Microsoft based server software for your server, especially if it is a public server. The operating system is also crucial, but the actual server software is much more. Apache, which is free, is much more secure than Microsoft based server programs such as IIS. IIS may be easier to understand and administer, but it saves a lot of hassle to learn how to use Apache. IIS has a large number of vulnerabilities, such as the ability to gain access to cmd.exe and basically delete the whole drive by doing a ../ request in the address bar. These don't require viruses, but simply commands, but there are worms written to automatically make these commands. The code red does this.


Removing a virus
The best way to do this is to do a clean install. However, depending on how bad the virus is, a simple clean install won't remove it. So to be extra sure, you'll want to do a low level format. This is especially true of you got a boot sector virus, as even repartitioning and formatting won't quite remove it, but sometimes you can get away with an fdisk /mbr, but not all the time. here are various removal tools for viruses, it is good to use them and see if they work, but proceeding with the clean install is recommended. You never know if the virus is completely removed by deleting files you suspect are infected. Some viruses such as the Bugbear will close anti virus programs and other programs to make it hard and annoying to figure out what to do. A clean install is the best way to ensure that it's gone for good.

Viruses are out there, don't be one of the many infected ones! Stay alert and stay safe! Don't open unexpected files, regularly update your virus definitions and scan downloaded files!

I hope this article was useful for you!

Who's Seeding the Net With Spyware?

Who's Seeding the Net With Spyware?

Young surfers pick up paychecks for posting misleading pitches armed with invasive programs.

It's tough enough sometimes to figure out where you picked up that spyware, but have you ever wondered who planted that digital parasite?

It's likely a young man, maybe a college student, just making a few bucks spreading pop-up ads that contain a package unwelcome by many. And it's a growing cottage industry.

How It Works

Spyware follows your Internet surfing habits and serves up advertisements. You typically pick up spyware by clicking on links, which may not make it clear that you're downloading a "bonus" program when you read an ad or download a program you want.

The Federal Trade Commission defines spyware as "software that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge and which may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, or asserts control over a computer without the consumer's knowledge." The federal government and several states are considering antispyware laws, and Utah recently enacted one.

FTC and industry leaders have urged Congress to resist spyware legislation, instead pushing for the industry to adopt self-regulatory practices. They fear that proposed laws define the practice too vaguely, and would prohibit other marketing practices that benefit consumers. But some lawmakers worry that the tech industry will not regulate spyware aggressively enough to protect consumers.

Meanwhile, computer users continue to face the side effects of spyware on their systems: bogged-down Internet connections, identity theft, lost documents, system problems, and potential loss of privacy.

Who's Behind It

The people distributing the links for spyware downloads are paid about 15 cents every time an unsuspecting surfer clicks on their misleading bait.

"Friends signed me up one night, after we'd been drinking," says one twenty-something man, who plants spyware for pay. "They said it was an easy way to make some money."

"All I had to do was sign up and post fake ads, saying things like 'to see my picture click here.' Then when they clicked, it told them they had to download software to see the pictures."

But the user downloaded no pictures; instead, they got the greeting, "Come back later to see my photo." The ad is bogus, but the contamination of the computer is real.

He says open forums and other unregulated sites are the best places to post ads, because large numbers of people are likely to click on the phony links.

"You have to move around," he says, noting that if users complain, he'll be kicked off a site, or a section of a site. For example, he will just move to a different part of a classified advertisement site, he says. "It's really easy, so reposting your ad is not a big deal."

At 15 cents per hit, he got checks every two weeks for a few hundred dollars each.

"I could have made a lot more," he says, adding that he really isn't doing it anymore. "All I had to do was put more ads up and I would have doubled or tripled my profits."

What's the Risk?

The foot soldiers who spread spyware may also become victims of the companies behind the software.

Many companies paying individuals to spread spyware post a disclaimer on their own Web site. It often contains a clause telling readers that if they commit fraud the company has the right to pull their paycheck.

However, the new Utah Spyware Control Act and other privacy laws sometimes invoked to combat spyware consider posting spyware to be fraud.

The spyware spreaders may not be reading the disclaimer themselves. But they do understand the company is paying them to trick people into downloading software, the young man says.

Does he feel any remorse for contaminating the computers of naive users? "Look, they're perverts if they click on my ads," he says, noting that the ads imply pornographic pictures await. "I say some nasty stuff, so, no, I don't feel bad." Anyone online should have a spyware blocker, spam blocker, and a firewall anyway, he said. "If they don't, they're just stupid."

A Challenging Battle

Placing ads online can be a tempting and easy way to make money from home, notes Ray Everette-Church, chief privacy officer for antispam product vendor Turn Tide.

"It is very successful," Everette-Church says. "Hundreds of thousands of dollars a month is generated in this tiered structural referral." He is serving as an expert witness for the plaintiffs in an ongoing adware case arguing against pop-up ads.

Millions of Americans online haven't protected their PCs, and pursuing perpetrators of spyware is more complicated than in other criminal investigations, according to Mozelle Thompson, an FTC commissioner.

"It's hard to identify how many companies are engaged in dangerous spyware, or spyware in general," Thompson says. "The definition of spyware is too broad."

The surreptitious nature of spyware makes it more difficult to track who, where, and how the spyware is disseminated, Thompson told a House subcommittee at a recent hearing.

"Consumer complaints, for instance, are less likely to lead directly to targets than in other law enforcement investigations, because consumers often do not know that spyware has caused the problems or, even if they do, they may not know the source of the spyware," he said at the April hearing.